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Early history[ edit ] Conjectural map of a mediaeval English manor. The part allocated to 'common pasture' is shown in the north-east section, shaded green. Decaying hedges mark the lines of the straight field boundaries created by the Parliamentary Act of Enclosure of Boldron Moor, County Durham.
Throughout the medieval and modern periods, piecemeal enclosure took place in which adjacent strips were fenced off from the common field. This was sometimes undertaken by small landowners, but more often by large landowners and lords of the manor. Significant enclosures or emparkments took Compensation thesis globalization to establish deer parks.
Some but not all Compensation thesis globalization these enclosures took place with local agreement. Tudor enclosures[ edit ] There was a significant rise in enclosure during the Tudor period. These enclosures largely resulted in conversion of land use from arable to pasture — usually sheep farming.
These enclosures were often undertaken unilaterally by the landowner. Enclosures during the Tudor period were often accompanied by a loss of common rights and could result in the destruction of whole villages. Foreign demand for English wool also helped encourage increased production, and the wool industry was often thought to be more profitable for landowners who had large decaying farmlands.
Some manorial lands lay in disrepair from a lack of tenants, which made them undesirable to both prospective tenants and landowners who could be fined and ordered to make repairs.
Enclosure and sheep herding which required very few labourers were a solution to the problem, but resulted in unemployment, the displacement of impoverished rural labourers, and decreased domestic grain production which made England more susceptible to famine and higher prices for domestic and foreign grain.
But elite opinion began to turn towards support for enclosure, and rate of enclosure increased in the seventeenth century. This led to a series of government acts addressing individual regions, which were given a common framework in the Inclosure Consolidation Act of Sir Thomas Morein his work Utopia suggests that the practice of enclosure was responsible for some of the social problems affecting England at the time, specifically theft: They stop the course of agriculture, destroying houses and towns — reserving only the churches — and enclose grounds that they may lodge their sheep in them.
Fynes Moryson reported on these problems in his work An Itinerary: Yet I must confess, that daily this plenty of corn decreaseth, by reason that private men, finding greater commodity in feeding of sheep and cattle than in the plow, requiring the hands of many servants, can by no law be restrained from turning cornfields into enclosed pastures, especially since great men are the first to break these laws.
Anti-enclosure legislation[ edit ] The enclosure of common land for sheep farming and the consequent eviction of villagers from their homes and their livelihoods became an important political issue for the Tudors. Reflecting royal opposition to this practice, the anti-enclosure acts of and were aimed at stopping the waste of structures and farmland, which would lead to lower tax revenues, fewer potential military conscripts for the crown, and more potential underclass rebels.
The Tudor authorities were extremely nervous about how the villagers who had lost their homes would react. In the sixteenth century, lack of income made one a pauper. If one lost one's home as well, one became a vagrant ; and vagrants were regarded and treated as criminals. The authorities saw many people becoming what they regarded as vagabonds and thieves as a result of enclosure and depopulation of villages.
From the time of Henry VII onwards, Parliament began passing Acts to stop enclosure, to limit its effects, or at least to fine those responsible. The first such law was in Over the next years, there were 11 more Acts of Parliament and eight commissions of enquiry on the subject.
Inconversion from arable to pasture became an offence. Once again, half the profits from conversion would go to the Crown until the arable land was restored.Robert B. Reich; drawing by James Ferguson. Back in , in what now seems like a far more innocent time, Robert Reich published an influential book titled The Work of Nations, which among other things helped land him a cabinet post in the Clinton initiativeblog.com was .
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