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Definition Existentialism is a European philosophy that started in the mids and hit its stride in the years around World War II.
It has two parts: Life has no inherent meaning. Nothing we do matters in an absolute sense. Or even better than okay, because it means that life can have the meaning that we give it—that we are more important than any pre-conceived notions about our lives.
So, existentialism is a positive alternative to nihilism. So, phenomenologists strongly justified the idea that your individual experience here and now is more real than any gods or abstract ideals.
On the other hand, the risks are considerable; if meaning in life is entirely up to us, then what do we say to people who make their meaning by harming others?
Transcendentalism Existentialists and Transcendentalists both originated around the same time, and both responded to the threat of nihilism. People in this time were worried that they were slipping into nihilism because rationalism and contact with non-European cultures were making it difficult for European and American thinkers to believe in absolute religious meanings.
Both philosophies were partially influenced by Eastern philosophies like Buddhismwhich has no dogma and focus on experience rather than belief. In fact, some people consider Buddhism a nihilistic religion.
Whereas existentialism accepted the basic claims of nihilism part 1 of the idea and then tried to re-interpret them, Transcendentalism rejected part 1 entirely, arguing instead that meaning and purpose in life do come from a universal, transcendent source, but one which does not rely on a particular religious dogma — some kind of divinity which pervades all nature and is consistent with reason and science; it was a Existentialism vs phenomenology essay of pantheism.
As such, Transcendentalism can be consistent with many different religions, as long as one believes that god is in everything; some Transcendentalists are Christians, others are inspired by Eastern religions, and still others are Secular Humanists, believing in no traditional religion.
This short quote sums up the idea pretty well. Sisyphus was a character in Greek mythology, a man condemned to Hades by the gods. He was given a boulder to roll up a hill and told that if he pushed it to the top he would be set free; but every time he would get within inches of the top, the boulder would slip from his grasp to roll all the way back down to the bottom.
Camus argued that this was a good metaphor for human life — pointless, endless, absurd. But he believed that we could imagine Sisyphus smiling as he worked in spite of all that. Sisyphus, after all, makes a choice: Like Neil deGrasse Tyson today, Sagan was a popular figure who made poetry out of science.
In this quote, Sagan sounds like an existentialist, as he suggests that there is no inherent purpose or meaning in the universe. Given that Existentialism involves a lack of belief in God or inherent purpose in life of faith, it may be surprising to learn that Kierkegaard was a devout Christian!
Not only that, his whole philosophy was based on trying to explain why faith in God was important. But there was no reason for this Leap of Faith other than the fact that it would help make human life worth living! In other words, Kierkegaard was existentialist because he claimed that we humans are responsible for giving meaning to our own lives—through the leap of faith.
During the Holocaust, many Jewish intellectuals suffered through the horrors of the Nazi concentration camps, and nearly all lost family members and friends. These intellectuals, and many sympathetic non-Jews, found it impossible to believe that the world had any inherent meaning after that experience.
If God allowed the Holocaust to happen, then He was either evil, or too weak to be worth worshipping. Many people abandoned their faiths and tried to make new meaning in their lives based on existentialist ideas.
The biggest name in existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre, write during this period and defined existentialism more than any other philosopher.
Existentialism had the greatest impact on western thinking in the late 20th Century in all sorts of different areas. Psychologists, sociologists, and even some physical scientists adopted this stance toward the meaning of life. They asked questions like: How is it possible to live on after such trauma?
Meanwhile, the idea that we make meaning, rather than being given it, became central to all of the humanities—linguistics, anthropology, history, literary theory, etc.
Later in the 20th century, after people had had time to explore the implications of existentialism, it evolved into a variety of further philosophies, especially deconstructionism, which focuses on the idea that all meanings are constructed by people and have no absolute foundation.
I agree with the second part. But I have a great life, and a great family, and I have the Book of Mormon to thank for that! This is a very existentialist way to relate to your religion — not to see it as based on eternal, sacred, or transcendent truths, but simply as a set of ideas and rituals that help you live a better life in the here-and-now.
The element of choice at the end makes this quote particularly existentialist.Jan 22, · An overview of Sartre's philosophy and the connections between his phenomenology and his existentialism, by Jim Gabaret and Morten Jelby.
Phenomenological Existentialism Dr. C. George Boeree Phenomenology is a research technique that involves the careful description of aspects of human life as they are lived; Existentialism, deriving its insights from phenomenology, is the philosophical attitude that views human life from the inside rather than pretending to understand it from an.
concepts of existentialism Essay Examples.
Describing the Existential Phenomenology of Jean-Paul Sartre ( words, 3 pages) In this paper I will attempt to describe the existential phenomenology of Jean-Paul Sartre and portray it into real life while analyzing its applications.
I will first explain what existentialism is according to Sartre. Hello Existentialism and Phenomenology This Research Paper Hello Existentialism and Phenomenology and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on initiativeblog.com Autor: review • December 9, • Research Paper • 5, Words (23 Pages) • 1, Views.
Existentialism vs. Phenomenology Essay Existentialism vs. Phenomenology and the response to Hegelian Idealism Absolute idealism was a huge part of Western culture but through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the greatest political movement took place.
Existentialism. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology.