Folklore 2000

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Folklore 2000

One of the earliest examples of subterranean Folklore 2000 is to be found in the Gilgamesh cycle of stories, which some would say is not so much fictitious as it is a distorted account of actual ancient events.

Gilgamesh was an actual king who ruled Uruk also called Unug about B. Like other heroes of ancient mythic cycles who were demigods, or semi-divine, Gilgamesh longed for an immortality which he saw as his birthright, much the same as Heracles of the Greeks.

In one tale from his cycle, he befriends a physically powerful, hairy, subhuman character named Enkidu, and teaches him the customs of humanity.

In a later tale, on behalf of his friend and king, Enkidu agrees to venture into the underworld of ancient Mesopotamia, to search for someone who has the secret of immortality.

This realm was ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal and her consort Nergal, a warlike god who had entered her queendom with plans of conquest, only to be seduced by the enemy, who became his wife. The KI-GAL was said to be filled with a wide range of beings, including the spirits and undead, reanimated bodies of human beings, and also savage guardians called "scorpion men.

Also present in the underworld were the UTUKKU, "eagle-headed" reptilian humanoids, which are probably the original djinn and ifrits of the ancient middle east. The latter beings are usually depicted with wings, representing their ability to fly when dispatched on the errands of the rulers of the underworld.

All of these are motifs which are found to permeate nearly every ancient underworld tradition, in one form or another, and have also found their way into folklore and literature. Asia, particularly the Indian subcontinent, Tibet, Nepal, China, and Japan, have very similar traditions about subterranean inhabitants.

In India there is a strong belief in the reality of the Nagas, a race of serpent-people or lizard-men who make their homes in two major underground cities or civilizationsPatala and Bhogavati.

The latter is said to be under the Himalayas, and from there the Nagas wage war on other, human, subterraneans, from the subsurface kingdoms of Agharta and Shambala.

A Prelude to Biblical Folklore

To this day, Patala is believed by millions of Hindus to have an entrance in the Well of Sheshna, in Benares. According to herpetologist and author Sherman A. Minton, as stated in his book "Venomous Reptiles," this entrance is very real, with forty steps which descend into a circular depression, to terminate at a closed stone door which is covered in bas-relief cobras.

In Tibet, there is a major mystical shrine also called "Patala," which is said by the people there to sit atop an ancient cavern and tunnel system, which reaches throughout the Asian continent and possibly beyond. The Nagas also have an affinity with water, and the entrances to their underground palaces are often said to be hidden at the bottom of wells, deep lakes, and rivers.

The Nagas are described as a very advanced race or species, with a highly-developed technology. They also harbor a disdain for human beings, whom they are said to abduct, torture, interbreed with, and even to eat.

Folklore 2000

The interbreeding has supposedly led to a wide variety of forms, ranging from completely reptilian to nearly-human in appearance. Among their many devices are "death rays" and "vimana,"" or flying, disk-shaped aerial craft. These craft are described at length in many ancient Vedic texts, including the Bhagivad-gita and the Ramayana.

The Naga race is related to another underworld race, the Hindu demons, or Rakshasas. They also possess, as individuals, "magical stones," or a "third eye" in the middle of their brows, known to many students of eastern mysticism today as a focal point for one of the higher chakras, or energy channel-points, of the human oid nervous system--the chakra associated with "inner visions," intuition, and other esoteric concepts.

Folklore 2000

The Lung are said to dwell either in the "celestial realm," that is, the stars and planets, or beneath the surface of the Earth. They, too, possess a "magical pearl" in their foreheads, a "mystical" or divine eye or source of power. Like the Nagas, some of the entrances to their palaces or kingdoms could be found beneath lakes and rivers, or behind waterfalls.

Almost always, such entrances are well-hidden from the intrusive eyes--or feet--of mortal men and women. One such entrance to the Chinese underworld was said to be in the "Eastern Mountain" of Taishan, near Qufu province.

This entrance to the Chinese Hell was guarded by savage demons called Men Shen, often depicted as warriors wearing fierce, animalistic masks or faces.

There was also interaction between the Lords of Hell, as they were known, and the Dragon Kings. The four Hell-Kings, called Yan Luo or Yen Wang possibly derived from the Hindu death-god, Yamarule over a vast region which consists of eighteen levels or locales.

Local and world folklore collected by students in Russian 13

In one tale, a Dragon King is robbed by an extremely clever and human-like "monkey," who is similar in many respects to the Hindu Hanuman who in turn came into conflict with the Rakshasas of the underworld, in the Ramayana.First awarded in , the Chicago Folklore Prize, awarded to the author(s) of the best book-length work of folklore scholarship for the year, is the oldest international award recognizing excellence in folklore .

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Academic Scholars Institute Summer Researching Folklore Get access to library resources by finding the Rutgers University Libraries Web page Folklore and Mythology - Electronic Texts and Regional Folklore and Mythology are collection of stories from many different ethnic groups.

Balearic Islands have a great richdom of archaical traditions, consequence of their old of their "Fiestas" are very colorful and attractive for the visitor. The University of North Texas Press was founded in and published its first book in Though it is the newest university press in North Texas, it has quickly become a leading press with the most titles in print (more than ) and published (15 to 18 each year).

She received her M.A. in Folklore from the University of Oregon in (her thesis was entitled “Political Pranks: The Performance of Radical Humor”). She is interested in the intersection of folklore, feminism, and ecology, and her research includes political pranks, ‘zines, and seasonal festivals/celebrations.

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