Meditatio is the second of four steps of Lectio Divinaan ancient form of Christian prayer. Meditation refers to a mental or spiritual state that may be attained by such practices,  and also refers to the practice of that state. Christian, Judaic, and Islamic forms of meditation are typically devotional, scriptural or thematic, while Asian forms of meditation are often more purely technical. Definitions or Characterizations of Meditation:
Lesson Structure Written by Chris Cotter Any lesson will incorporate a series of activities that allow students to practice and reinforce the target language or skill.
However, attention should be given as to the order of the activities. Considering when and why they will be used ensures the class progresses smoothly, and students don't get confused or dissatisfied. Controlled, semi-controlled, and free activities provide a rough order for any lesson, with any activity falling into one of these categories.
Controlled activities tend to appear early in the lesson, semi-controlled in the middle stages, and lastly free activities towards the end.
As the class progresses through the content, each type of activity allows increased amounts of creativity, personal relevance, and experimentation with the language. Controlled Activities In activities which are controlled, the teacher knows the answer, question, or language which the students will produce.
There is only one correct response. For example, if the teacher were to use flashcards as a prompt for vocabulary, there is only one correct answer for each flashcard. The same holds true if students worked in pairs to complete a gap-fill worksheet, crossword, or even a sentence unscramble.
Controlled activities allow students to slowly focus on the new grammar structure or skill. A variety of possible answers don't get in the way, and students don't struggle with cognitive, cultural, or language load.
Quickly defined, these terms mean: This refers to how many new ideas and concepts are in the activity. This concept focuses on new cultural ideas that may be a part of the activity. Any new vocabulary words in an activity refer to language load.
Here there is a somewhat increased amount of freedom, which maintains interest and challenge for the students. The teacher can't guess all the specific answers before the activity begins, even if there are a limited number of possibilities.
For example, if students were to brainstorm occupations, then most students would compile lists with many of the same jobs.
However, there will always be a few which are unanticipated and surprising. With semi-controlled activities, students have the chance to somewhat personalize the language, drawing on past studies, interests, and needs.
In the brainstorming activity just mentioned, perhaps one student brings up "nutritionist" because he works in a hospital. For him, this job is relevant and important.
And although students have such freedom, they still can practice the new language within narrow confines.
They aren't yet fully familiar or confident with the language. Free Activities Free activities come last in the lesson. Here the students have complete freedom in the language they produce. The teacher can't predict what will be said before the activity begins.
Students have the greatest opportunity to personalize the language, experiment, and incorporate previously learned vocabulary, grammar, and other points. Real, relevant language naturally leads to high rates of retention for students.
It's important to leave free activities towards the end of the lesson, as students don't yet have the ability to use the new target language with a minimal amount of mistakes. Controlled and semi-controlled activities should provide enough practice to allow this type of activity to be conducted successfully.
What's more, by incorporating free activities, students adjust and work within their personal comfort levels. This improves student interest.
For example, a weaker student might largely stick to the target language in a free activity, while a stronger student might mix some new vocabulary that has been independently studied. Because both students are working to their maximum ability, both are challenged, engaged, and building fluency and accuracy skills.
However, other skills can also follow the same lesson structure of controlled to free activities. Discourse markers to organize and highlight information, stalling devices, or skills' based lessons for meetings or telephoning, just to provide a few examples, would similarly follow this lesson structure.
In short, any lesson should work from controlled to free activities.WHAT IS CONTROLLED WRITING? Raimes () – “all the writing your students do for which a great deal of the content and/or form is supplied.” Opposite to free writing; similar to guided writing (not the same though).
Compared to free writing, more is given to the students: • • • • an outline to complete a paragraph to manipulate a. Mar 03, · Abstract. RINDANG WIDININGRUM () Controlled Writing as a Class Exercise for initiativeblog.comng: English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Semarang State University.
Writing is part of skills that the students must learn in class. Guided writing lessons can be taught after a whole-class lesson once other students are actively engaged in independent writing. Research Basis Writing is learned through apprenticeships, as teachers assist students during writing using guided practice.
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