The people who formed different movements within christian thought in the 17th century read the English Bible dilligently - and reached different conclusions. A Quaker defense of their interpretation of scriptures is included in An epistle from the Quakers to the Governor of Barbados in The debate between Bunyan and the Quakers was carried out by pamphlet war between and - Now made availabale on the web by Larry Kuenning. Also besides these teachings of God in His word, the Lord made use of two things to confirm me in this truth; the one was the errors of the Quakers and the other was the guilt of sin; for as the Quakers did oppose this truth, so God did the more confirm me in it, by leading me into the scripture that did wonderfully maintain it.
British, Britannic Orientation Identification. The name of the country and the term "English" derive from the Old English word for one of the three Germanic peoples that invaded the British Isles in the fifth century C.
Englishness is highly regionalized. The most important regional divide is between the south and the north. The south, chiefly represented by the regions of the southeast, southwest, East Anglia, and the Midlands, now contains the economically most dynamic sectors of the country, including the City the chief financial center of the United Kingdom and the seat of the national government, both in London.
The north, the cradle of industrialization and the site of traditional smokestack industries, includes Yorkshire, Lancashire, Northumberland, Cumbria, Durham, Merseyside, and Cheshire.
Especially in the last decades of the twentieth century, the north has experienced deindustrialization, severe economic hardship, and cultural balkanization.
England is also a culture of many smaller regionalisms, still centered on the old governmental unit of the county and the local villages and towns. Local products, such as ale, and regional rituals and art forms, such as Morris dancing and folk music, many of which date back to the preindustrial era, allow people to shape their attachments to their communities and the nation.
Merged with the north—south divide and regionalism are notions of working class, middle class, and upper class as well as rich versus poor. Historically, the most prominent immigrant group has been the Irish, who came in two major waves in the modern era: Scots were present in England by the s and settled in England in large numbers during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, often for economic reasons.
Welsh in-migration came to prominence when deindustrialization began in Wales in the s. This inmigration has brought the so-called Celtic fringe into English culture in a host of ways.
England covers 50, square milessquare kilometers of the main island of the British Isles and lies off the northwestern coast of Europe, separated from the mainland by the English Channel.
The Gulf Stream makes the climate mild and rainy. The country is also divided into a highland zone and a lowland zone along a line from the mouth of the River Exe in the southwest to the mouth of the River Tees in the northeast.
As a result of its favorable topography, the lowland region has always had the majority of the population, supported most agriculture and trade, and had the largest cities including the capital, London.
The population was The estimated nonwhite proportion of the population for that year was 7. Celtic in-migrations continues to be a major influence. These migrations are often urban in focus and tend to cluster in particular districts like London and Merseyside.
The second important shift in demography from an ethnic standpoint is related to the end of the British Empire. Beginning in the s, peoples from the Indian subcontinent and the Caribbean began to immigrate to England, taking advantage of the British Nationality Act, which established that all Commonwealth citizens enjoyed British citizenship.
Between andthe number of nonwhites in England, Scotland, and Wales rose from 2. In that same period Great Britain grew by just 5. European, Mediterranean, and East Asian immigrants have been part of the cultural landscape since the Middle Ages, when the Jewish community came to prominence and Flemish clothworkers began arriving.
Immigrants to England in particular have been drawn there by the creation of a Common Market in Western Europe and the ending of restrictions on the movement of eastern Europeans. The primary language since the sixteenth century has been some version of English.
English, however, is an amalgam of languages brought to the British Isles by invasions that began before written history.
The Celts made Gaelic the dominant language until the Romans invaded in 55 and 54 B. The arrival of Christianity in allowed English to interact with Latin as well as with Greek, Hebrew, and languages as distant as Chinese.
Viking invasions a few centuries later brought Scandinavian languages to the British Isles, while the Norman invasion in introduced French. Gradually, all levels of society adopted English, which had largely supplanted Latin and French in the second half of the fifteenth century.
This divide between the East Midland dialect and all others emerged between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries when those speaking with a "proper" or "posh" accent separated themselves from those speaking "Cockney" or working-class English.
This division is signified by the distinction between "received pronunciation" r. This linguistic divide has always corresponded with social rank. The elite generally spoke with an r.It’s hard to believe how the Advent season is nearly upon us.
We’ve got almost two weeks, though, so we can still solve your problems by getting the right resources for your needs in plenty of time. UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
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UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla. Our multimedia service, through this new integrated single platform, updates throughout the day, in text, audio and video – also making use of quality images and other media .
After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go. Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address. Eyob Mekonnen (photo courtesy: Massinko Entertainment) BBC.
Fans of the year-old singer helped raise money for his treatment after he had a stroke last Tuesday in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa. Having one fewer child is the most effective way an individual would have to fight climate change.
The next best actions are selling your car, avoiding long flights, and eating a vegetarian diet, according to a study published in Environmental Research Letters.