See Article History Affirmative action, in the United Statesan active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and for women. Affirmative action began as a government remedy to the effects of long-standing discrimination against such groups and has consisted of policies, programs, and procedures that give preferences to minorities and women in job hiring, admission to institutions of higher educationthe awarding of government contracts, and other social benefits.
Students, parents, and faculty are excited. But they are also nervous. These are difficult times for higher education in America.
At all but the nation's top colleges and universities, enrollments are down and budgets are strapped. Many explanations have been offered about why higher education is floundering: After all, how many assistant deans and new athletic fields does a college really need?
Far fewer than academic bureaucrats seem to think, in my humble opinion. The heavy-headed use of racial and ethnic preferences in student admissions, financial aid, and faculty hiring is also to blame, but almost nobody ever mentions that.
The explanation for the conspiracy of silence about affirmative action is easy to identify: As this year's entering class will quickly learn, higher education is dominated by the Left and racial preferences are the sacred cow of the Left.
Worse yet, critics of racial preferences are often retaliated against in both subtle and not so subtle ways.
Opposition to preferential treatment is not well received at faculty meetings, to put it mildly. The term "affirmative action" originated with an executive order signed by President John F. Kennedy on March 6, that was designed to promote non-discrimination in the United States.
Johnson took the next major step when he issued an executive order of his own in that required government employers to take "affirmative action" to "hire without regard to race, religion and national origin.
Indeed, the people of Michigan were reacting to that discrimination when they amended the Michigan constitution in to forbid preferential treatment on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, and national origin in education, public employment, and contracting.
Supreme Court ruled, 6 to 2, in April in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action that the people of Michigan were allowed to ban preferential treatment in the state. California's Propositionenacted a decade before the Michigan amendment, was motivated by similar concerns, and recent attempts to repeal it would adversely impact Asian-Americans in particular, who do extremely well in merit-based processes.
Admissions The Supreme Court has struggled for decades with how colleges and universities may use racial and ethnic preferences in admissions. At present, the law is this: The first point stems from the Supreme Court's 5 to 4 decision in the University of Michigan law school case.
The second is from the Court's ruling in the University of Texas case. If--and it's a big "if"--lower courts abide by the Supreme Court's directive, admissions programs across the nation will start dropping like flies because race is used heavy-handedly rather than modestly on almost every occasion.
If, however, lower courts continue to defer to academic institutions, the institutions will continue to dissemble and prevaricate in order to try to avoid having their illegal programs declared illegal. That happened recently on remand in the U.Affirmative action is one of the most effective tools for redressing the injustices caused by our nation's historic discrimination against people of color and women, and for leveling what has long been an uneven playing field.
Affirmative action becomes controversial when it is perceived as giving preference to minorities or women over other qualified candidates.
The Origin of Affirmative Action Programs Former U.S. President John F. Kennedy used the phrase “affirmative action” in Published: Mon, 5 Dec Abstract. The paper explores how affirmative action influences employment decisions of managers in the hospitality industry.
Affirmative action involves a process of ensuring fairness and justice in order to cultivate the spirit of diversity. Affirmative Action was centered around because women and minorities were being discriminated against. By definition, affirmative action is “the encouragement of increased representation of women and minority-group members, especially in employment” (initiativeblog.com).
Affirmative Action: Equality or Reverse Discrimination? Affirmative action is a program that serves to rectify the effects of purportedly past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and opportunities to minorities and women. Affirmitive Action Essay Words | 5 Pages Affirmative Action is the name given to programs that try to correct past and ongoing discriminations against women, racial minorities, and others in the work force and in education.